Leveldb源码 skiplist 跳表



跳表基于并联的链表,其效率可比拟于二叉查找树(对于大多数操作需要O(log n)平均时间)。






// Thread safety
// -------------
// Writes require external synchronization, most likely a mutex.
// Reads require a guarantee that the SkipList will not be destroyed
// while the read is in progress.  Apart from that, reads progress
// without any internal locking or synchronization.
// Invariants:
// (1) Allocated nodes are never deleted until the SkipList is
// destroyed.  This is trivially guaranteed by the code since we
// never delete any skip list nodes.
// (2) The contents of a Node except for the next/prev pointers are
// immutable after the Node has been linked into the SkipList.
// Only Insert() modifies the list, and it is careful to initialize
// a node and use release-stores to publish the nodes in one or
// more lists.
// ... prev vs. next pointer ordering ...

class SkipList {
  struct Node;

  // Create a new SkipList object that will use "cmp" for comparing keys,
  // and will allocate memory using "*arena".  Objects allocated in the arena
  // must remain allocated for the lifetime of the skiplist object.
  explicit SkipList(Comparator cmp, Arena* arena);

  // Insert key into the list.
  // REQUIRES: nothing that compares equal to key is currently in the list.
  void Insert(const Key& key);

  // Returns true iff an entry that compares equal to key is in the list.
  bool Contains(const Key& key) const;

  // Iteration over the contents of a skip list
  class Iterator {

  //《efficetive C++》尽量不要使用宏定义定义常量,取代的办法是const常量和enum类型
  enum { kMaxHeight = 12 };

  // Immutable after construction
  //const 构造后不可变
  Comparator const compare_;
  Arena* const arena_;    // Arena used for allocations of nodes

  Node* const head_;

  // Modified only by Insert().  Read racily by readers, but stale
  // values are ok.
  port::AtomicPointer max_height_;   // Height of the entire list

  inline int GetMaxHeight() const {
    return static_cast<int>(

  // Read/written only by Insert().
  Random rnd_;

  Node* NewNode(const Key& key, int height);
  int RandomHeight();
  bool Equal(const Key& a, const Key& b) const { return (compare_(a, b) == 0); }

  // Return true if key is greater than the data stored in "n"
  bool KeyIsAfterNode(const Key& key, Node* n) const;

  // Return the earliest node that comes at or after key.
  // Return NULL if there is no such node.
  // If prev is non-NULL, fills prev[level] with pointer to previous
  // node at "level" for every level in [0..max_height_-1].
  Node* FindGreaterOrEqual(const Key& key, Node** prev) const;

  // Return the latest node with a key < key.
  // Return head_ if there is no such node.
  Node* FindLessThan(const Key& key) const;

  // Return the last node in the list.
  // Return head_ if list is empty.
  Node* FindLast() const;

  // No copying allowed
  SkipList(const SkipList&);
  void operator=(const SkipList&);


// Implementation details follow
template<typename Key, class Comparator>
struct SkipList<Key,Comparator>::Node {
  explicit Node(const Key& k) : key(k) { }

  Key const key;

  // Accessors/mutators for links.  Wrapped in methods so we can
  // add the appropriate barriers as necessary.
  Node* Next(int n) {
    assert(n >= 0);
    // Use an 'acquire load' so that we observe a fully initialized
    // version of the returned Node.
    return reinterpret_cast<Node*>(next_[n].Acquire_Load());
  void SetNext(int n, Node* x) {
    assert(n >= 0);
    // Use a 'release store' so that anybody who reads through this
    // pointer observes a fully initialized version of the inserted node.

  // No-barrier variants that can be safely used in a few locations.
  Node* NoBarrier_Next(int n) {
    assert(n >= 0);
    return reinterpret_cast<Node*>(next_[n].NoBarrier_Load());
  void NoBarrier_SetNext(int n, Node* x) {
    assert(n >= 0);

  // Array of length equal to the node height.  next_[0] is lowest level link.
  port::AtomicPointer next_[1];


template<typename Key, class Comparator>
typename SkipList<Key,Comparator>::Node*
SkipList<Key,Comparator>::NewNode(const Key& key, int height) {
  char* mem = arena_->AllocateAligned(
      sizeof(Node) + sizeof(port::AtomicPointer) * (height - 1));
  //placement new就是在用户指定的内存位置上构建新的对象,
  return new (mem) Node(key);

placement new(定位构造)的用法可参考手册,也可参考以下网址:


template<typename Key, class Comparator>
int SkipList<Key,Comparator>::RandomHeight() {
  // Increase height with probability 1 in kBranching
  static const unsigned int kBranching = 4;
  int height = 1;
  while (height < kMaxHeight && ((rnd_.Next() % kBranching) == 0)) {
  assert(height > 0);
  assert(height <= kMaxHeight);
  return height;

template<typename Key, class Comparator>
bool SkipList<Key,Comparator>::KeyIsAfterNode(const Key& key, Node* n) const {
  // NULL n is considered infinite
  return (n != NULL) && (compare_(n->key, key) < 0);

template<typename Key, class Comparator>
typename SkipList<Key,Comparator>::Node* SkipList<Key,Comparator>::FindGreaterOrEqual(const Key& key, Node** prev)
    const {
  Node* x = head_;
  int level = GetMaxHeight() - 1;
  while (true) {
    Node* next = x->Next(level);
    if (KeyIsAfterNode(key, next)) {
      // Keep searching in this list
      x = next;
    } else {
      if (prev != NULL) prev[level] = x;
      if (level == 0) {
        return next;
      } else {
        // Switch to next list

template<typename Key, class Comparator>
void SkipList<Key,Comparator>::Insert(const Key& key) {
  // TODO(opt): We can use a barrier-free variant of FindGreaterOrEqual()
  // here since Insert() is externally synchronized.
  Node* prev[kMaxHeight];
  Node* x = FindGreaterOrEqual(key, prev);

  // Our data structure does not allow duplicate insertion
  assert(x == NULL || !Equal(key, x->key));

  //随机插入节点层数,底层数为上层数的4倍(0层3/4 1层(1/4)*(3/4) ....)
  int height = RandomHeight();
  if (height > GetMaxHeight()) {
    for (int i = GetMaxHeight(); i < height; i++) {
      prev[i] = head_;
    //fprintf(stderr, "Change height from %d to %d\n", max_height_, height);

    // It is ok to mutate max_height_ without any synchronization
    // with concurrent readers.  A concurrent reader that observes
    // the new value of max_height_ will see either the old value of
    // new level pointers from head_ (NULL), or a new value set in
    // the loop below.  In the former case the reader will
    // immediately drop to the next level since NULL sorts after all
    // keys.  In the latter case the reader will use the new node.

  x = NewNode(key, height);
  for (int i = 0; i < height; i++) {
    // NoBarrier_SetNext() suffices since we will add a barrier when
    // we publish a pointer to "x" in prev[i].
    x->NoBarrier_SetNext(i, prev[i]->NoBarrier_Next(i));
    prev[i]->SetNext(i, x);

读redis的源码其random level函数写的也蛮漂亮

#define ZSKIPLIST_MAXLEVEL 32 /* Should be enough for 2^32 elements */
#define ZSKIPLIST_P 0.25      /* Skiplist P = 1/4 */
/* Returns a random level for the new skiplist node we are going to create.
 * The return value of this function is between 1 and ZSKIPLIST_MAXLEVEL
 * (both inclusive), with a powerlaw-alike distribution where higher
 * levels are less likely to be returned. */
int zslRandomLevel(void) {
    int level = 1;
    while ((random()&0xFFFF) < (ZSKIPLIST_P * 0xFFFF))
        level += 1;


typedef struct zskiplistNode {
    robj *obj;
    double score;
    struct zskiplistNode *backward;
    struct zskiplistLevel {
        struct zskiplistNode *forward;
        unsigned int span;
    } level[];
} zskiplistNode;

typedef struct zskiplist {
    struct zskiplistNode *header, *tail;
    unsigned long length;
    int level;
} zskiplist;

redis的level不仅有前进指针,还有一个步长(unsigned int span),这使得根据rank(排名)做操作时更加简单效率。






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